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The article is a continuation of scientific work in seismology, based on a systematic approach to the problem of identifying precursors of seismic activity and reliable prediction of earthquakes. Despite the fact that a large number of their precursors are currently known, earthquakes continue to occur unexpectedly not only for the population, but also for seismologists. In 2012-2018, the authors proposed an energy model for the preparation and implementation of the earthquake source, which explains the occurrence of earthquake precursors of different physical nature. On the basis of this model, a method of medium-term prediction of the time of occurrence of the earthquake was developed, based on the manifestation of the correlation dependence of helium concentration in groundwater before the earthquake. This method was patented (patent for the invention RU № 2601403C2). Subsequent studies in this direction have shown that the particular methods developed in the framework of this method were applicable not only in seismology, but also for the study of deep geodynamics. The article deals with the causes of mantle plumes and their influence on the structure of continents. A method of quantitative study of the dynamics of the interaction of the mantle plume with the lithosphere on the basis of changes in the concentration of dissolved radon and helium in groundwater is proposed. The practical results of the study of the dynamics of the interaction of the Baikal mantle plume with the lithosphere are presented. It is suggested that it is necessary to study the influence of the dynamics of the interaction of the Baikal mantle plume with the lithosphere on large-scale railway structures: bridges, embankments, overpasses, etc.

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